Adjoining High Quality
The subventricular zone remains mitotically active throughout life in rodents. Studies with tritiated thymidine, which is incorporated into the DNA of mitotic cells, have revealed that the rodent subventricular zone produces neuroblasts that migrate toward the olfactory bulb along the rostral migratory stream. A similar migratory stream has been documented in monkeys by using the thymidine analogue BrdUrd. The same approach showed that neurogenesis occurred in the dentate gyrus of adult primates, including humans. In the present study, experiments combining injections of BrdUrd and the dye 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine, with the immunostaining for molecular markers of neurogenesis (polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule, beta-tubulin-III, collapsin response mediator protein-4, neuronal nuclear protein) in New World (Saimiri sciureus) and Old World (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys have revealed that new neurons are produced in the amygdala, piriform cortex, and adjoining inferior temporal cortex in adult primates. These newborn neurons expressed the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and formed a more-or-less continuous pathway that extended from the tip of the temporal ventricular horn to the deep portion of the temporal lobe. The production of newborn neurons in the amygdala, piriform cortex, and inferior temporal cortex seems to parallel the continuing addition of neurons in the olfactory bulb. These two concomitant phenomena may ensure structural stability and functional plasticity to the primate olfactory system and temporal lobe.
Tree-adjoining grammar (TAG) is a grammar formalism defined by Aravind Joshi. Tree-adjoining grammars are somewhat similar to context-free grammars, but the elementary unit of rewriting is the tree rather than the symbol. Whereas context-free grammars have rules for rewriting symbols as strings of other symbols, tree-adjoining grammars have rules for rewriting the nodes of trees as other trees (see tree (graph theory) and tree (data structure)).
Tree-adjoining grammars are more powerful (in terms of weak generative capacity) than context-free grammars, but less powerful than linear context-free rewriting systems, indexed[note 1] or context-sensitive grammars.
For these reasons, tree-adjoining grammars are often described as mildly context-sensitive.These grammar classes are conjectured to be powerful enough to model natural languages while remaining efficiently parsable in the general case.
Vijay-Shanker and Weir (1994) demonstrate that linear indexed grammars, combinatory categorial grammar, tree-adjoining grammars, and head grammars are weakly equivalent formalisms, in that they all define the same string languages.
Lexicalized tree-adjoining grammars (LTAG) are a variant of TAG in which each elementary tree (initial or auxiliary) is associated with a lexical item. A lexicalized grammar for English has been developed by the XTAG Research Group of the Institute for Research in Cognitive Science at the University of Pennsylvania.
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This article shall briefly survey the basic issues and rights that concern adjoining landowners, concentrating on the usual state law. The reader is advised to read our articles on this website on the issues of Private Nuisance on the Land, Encroaching Trees, Adverse Possession and Prescriptive Easement.
Adjoining landowners are those persons, such as next-door neighbors, who own land that share common boundaries and thus have mutual rights, duties, and liabilities. The reciprocal rights and obligations of adjoining landowners existed at common law but have been invariably altered or expanded by various state laws and court decisions.
Adjoining landowners carry certain mutual rights, duties and liabilities. Landowners are expected to use their property reasonably without injuring the rights of adjoining landowners. The enjoyment should not unreasonably interfere or disturb the rights of adjoining landholders or create a private nuisance. Subject to this general requirement, a landowner can use his/her property according to his/her will upon the condition that such use will not injure any adjoining landowner (and does not violate the plethora of state and federal laws as to zoning, environmental hazards, etc. etc.)
In Abbinett v. Fox 103 N.M. 80 (N.M. Ct. App. 1985) the general law of most states is put well: In that case it is observed that a landowner is entitled to use his/her property in a manner that maximizes his/her enjoyment. However, the enjoyment must not unreasonably interfere or disturb the rights of adjoining landholders or create a private nuisance.
It is the duty of the landowner to utilize his/her property in a reasonable manner avoiding injury to the adjoining property or causing unreasonable harm to others in the vicinity. Accordingly, liability may be imposed on an adjoining landowner or lessee if that individual creates a dangerous condition.
Most jurisdictions, especially in urban areas, have passed numerous laws restricting use of land, regulating construction and construction noise, etc. etc. These laws may be state or local and must be consulted by a landowner before any action is taken. Violation of any of those ordinances will almost always grant legal relief to an injured adjoining property owner.
Adjoining landowners, who own lands that share common boundaries, have mutual rights, duties, and liabilities. The reciprocal rights and obligations of adjoining landowners existed at common law but have been modified by various state laws and court decisions. Strict liability and absolute liability are examples of liabilities between adjoining landowners. In tort law, strict liability makes a person responsible for the damage and loss caused by his/her acts and omissions regardless of negligence or culpability. Strict liability is distinct from absolute liability. In absolute liability, only a guilty act, or actus reus is required.
In Long v. Magnolia Hotel Co, 227 Miss. 625 (Miss. 1956) the Court held that an owner should use his land so as not to injure the legal rights of his neighbors. An owner who maintains or permits the existence of something potentially dangerous to an adjoining property must take precautions that no injury there from befalls his neighbor. The Court observed that, every owner must use his/her land in a reasonable manner with due regard to the rights and interests of others. An owner who negligently does an act on his/her property is liable for the damages so caused. The act may be lawful of itself but potentially injurious to adjoining property. And the fact that the adjoining injured building is substandard is not a valid defense. An imperfectly constructed building or building condemned by municipal authority is not a defense to an action for negligently injuring an adjoining building. The failure of an owner to exercise reasonable care to prevent injury to adjoining property from the fall of a dangerous wall or parts of it will make him/her liable in negligence.
A structure or wall in a dilapidated condition and one that threatens to fall upon and injure the adjoining premises is regarded as a continuing nuisancePennsylvania R. Co. v. Kelley, 77 N.J. Eq. 129 (Ch. 1910)
In Ohio Cas. Ins. Co. v. Davey Tree Expert Co, 173 N.E.2d 412 (Ohio Mun. Ct. 1959) the Court held that a contractor is liable for damage to adjoining property from negligence in felling a large tree. The Court observed that the contractor is liable even though the tree did not fall on the adjoining land but rather on the street because it broke utility lines in its fall, thereby disrupting service on the adjoining property.
Geologic Map of the Boise Valley and Adjoining Area, Western Snake River Plain, Idaho Geologic Maps (GM): GM-18 Year: 1992 Authors:Kurt L. OthbergLoudon R. Stanford Description:Sold folded only. Scale: 1:100,000 Size: 25" x 38" Geologic Maps Included in this Publication Geologic map of the Boise Valley and adjoining area, western Snake River Plain, Idaho
When selecting colors for graphics with multiple colors, consider adjoining colors and test that the contrast ratio is at least 3:1. If adjoining colors have less than 3:1 color contrast ratio difference add a border with at least a 3:1 color contrast with each color.
Answer yes if the project site or adjoining property is the subject of an ongoing or completed hazardous waste remediation. Using the information from the DEC website, describe what type of hazardous waste was (or is) on the site, how large an area it covered, when it was remediated, or other general information about the site. This information can be found from the Environmental Site Remedial Database Search Results page, by clicking on the "site code".
In this paper, we will describe a tree generating system called tree-adjoining grammar (TAG) and state some of the recent results about TAGs. The work on TAGs is motivated by linguistic considerations. However, a number of formal results have been established for TAGs, which we believe, would be of interest to researchers in formal languages and automata, including those interested in tree grammars and tree automata.
881. Access to adjoining property to make improvements or repairs. When an owner or lessee seeks to make improvements or repairs to real property so situated that such improvements or repairs cannot be made by the owner or lessee without entering the premises of an adjoining owner or his lessee, and permission so to enter has been refused, the owner or lessee seeking to make such improvements or repairs may commence a special proceeding for a license so to enter pursuant to article four of the civil practice law and rules. The petition and affidavits, if any, shall state the facts making such entry necessary and the date or dates on which entry is sought. Such license shall be granted by the court in an appropriate case upon such terms as justice requires. The licensee shall be liable to the adjoining owner or his lessee for actual damages occurring as a result of the entry. 350c69d7ab