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Bunpou Ga Yowai Anata E Pdf 81 UPD

75 10 1.W a 7720. Hodo 132.Ga f78 81 8523. Shika 29 8624. Nomi305.D e m o ZIALLJrfpdTT:J476H21.Bakari 22. Dake 26 3.M o4.-Temo(-demo) ( )8725. Kiri 33 6.T o 88 89 26. N o d e 27. Monode40 41 7.T o w a 8.Y a HR!VFiF -144aL-tho92 28. Keredomo 29. Tokorode 42 43 9.Toka 10. Nado 11.Ka Previo ly published under the sametitle in the Power Japanese Series (1991). 93 94 95 96 30. Noni31.K IlSe ni 32. M o n o n o 33. Tokoro ga f34. -Ba 52 60 45 49 13.Ni 14. E 12. D e 97 61 15. Kara . - . I s11 Distributed in theUnited States by Kodansha A mericaInc. and in the United Kingdomand continental Europeby' Kodansha EuropeLtd. Published by KodanshaIntemationa1 Ltd.17-14 Otowa 1-chome BunkyokuTokyo 112-8652andKodansha AmericaInc. pyright C1991 by Naoko C hino. All rightsreserved. Printed in Japan. ISBN-13: 97-4-7700-2781-8ISBN10:7700-2781-8First edition1991 First de paperback edition2001 12 1110 09 08 07 0615 14 13 12 11 10987 135. -Tara 65 16. Made 10236.Nara 68 17. N o a:10337. Mononara 72 18.0 www.1uHuJnshaintLcom38.Tokoro 10559. Na 135 39. Monoo 10660. Sa 137 P R E F A C E40.-Nagara 6 1076l.Koto 138 4l.-Tari 10862. -Kke 139 42. Shi 11063.-Tteba 140 4"3.Tomo 11164. -1 140 Some things are easier to learnothers. Takefor instance 44. Yara 11465. Mono 141 Japanesenounsverbsadjectivesand adverbs. Once you have alitt1e grammarunder your beltyou can pick them up and squirrel 45. Dano 11666. Ze143 themawaywirelative ease. For some reasonthoughis doesn't 4 6Nari 11767. Zo 143 work with partic1es. They can't be lookeduppinned downor pigeonholed in the same way that their fel10ws can.Yet their cor-47. -Tewa (-dewa) 68. Monoka 144 rect usage isessential to speaking Japanese wiany degree of ( )119 69. Niuency.145 W hy are partic1es so elusive? Because partic1es are nextto mean-48. Dokoro 121 ingless as isolated entities. A partic1einfactmight be defined as 49. Toshite 122 Index a non-conjugatingpart of speechbearing an absolute minimum 146 50. Yori 123 ofindependent meaningwhich atlaches itself to other parts of 5l.Saespeech and thereby places them in context. T husa statement 126consisting of a single partic1e wouldn't convey much meaning. 52.Sura 127 But the addition of another word would make a world ofdiffer-53.Koso ence. Aphrase like o ni (to Tokyo)for instancewould127 communicate somethingbut not ni by itself. The rule of thumbight be: Japanese partic1es have virtual1y no meaning bereft ofcontext. Sentence-endingIn is book1 propose to c1arify thefunctions of a consider-Particles able number of partic1estodescribe their various usagesand 54. Ne 128 most irnportanttoexemplify each and eve..yusage with sample sentences. Only in isway-through context- can the student 55. Yo 131 truly come to gripswith the Japanese partic1e.56. W a 132 Don't be surprised bycertain of the partic1es taken up here.v For examplethere is -baasin nomeba (if [you] drink). You may 57. Kana 133 iE at -ba is not apartic1e at al 1 but an inflection of the verb 58. Kashira 134nomu. Grammatically speakinghowever-ba is one of a species ofpartic1e fol1ows conjugated verbs (in is casenome-). 8 PrefaceSince -ba and others of its tribe are not only true particles butexhibit a m tiplicity of usage well worth your attention1 havechosen to include them. A neffort has been made to present theparticles in order of frequency-the more c o m m o nfirst; thelesslater. A nattempt has also been made to group particles bymeaning. Neither the ordering nor the groupinghoweveris entirelyconsistentsince the two systems are n o wand then at loggerheads. Afurther com-plication isthat some of the more basic particles haveusages belonging more properly to an intermediate or advanced levelof study. (All usages at these two levels are marked withasterisks.) Cross references are provided where similarities existbetween dierent particles. This was not done without somemisgivings for while certain particles m a ybe basically alikeeyare usually not true equivalents in the sense at one can replaceanother without even a slight change in meaning or a certainoddness creeping in.Inparticularthere are numerous comparisonsbetween wa and ga because of the frequent interplay between thesetwo particularly pesky particles. For those who wish to test theirproficiency through exercises or who want more sample sentencesseem y Gaikokuin no tama no joshi () published in Tokyo by MusashinoShoin ( ) .FinallyIank Suzuki Shigeyoshi and MichaelBrasemyedi-tors at Kodansha Internationalfor their help. M ysincere thanks also go to Jay Thomaswho did most of the translationebody of the book and 0 r e d m y valuable suggestions. With-outthe cooperation of these threethis book would never have come intobeing. 11l 1!1 AII About Particles141isll11114aubipJP6111141141111911u!10W AlWAI Note: W a hasseveral usagesbut its basic function is to set off a topic (e.g. ofconversation) from the rest of the sentencewhich talks about thetopic. Technicallywa does not indicate case(subjectobjectetcHoweverin practical termsit often (but not always)comes aesubject of the sen-tence. See also wa(#7)and tewa(#47).1.Indicates that information isbeing presented aboutsome-thing that isalready k n o w nor .at has been identified.Asoko ni akai hon ga arimasu ne. Are w a kanji no hon desu. Overthere isa red bookright. It's a kanji book. / See the red book overthere? T hat's a kanji book. Ano daigaku w Yotsuya-eki no chikakuni arimasu. That university-it's near Yotsuya Station. / Thatuniversity is near Yotsuya Station. 2.Indicates a topicwhich is enidentified or explained.Ashita w anichiyobi desu. Asfortomorrowit's Sunday. / Tomorrow is Sunday. Kujira w a sakana de waarimasen. As for the whaleit is not a fish. / T he whale is not afish. Note: If ga replaces wa in these sentencesthe noun which itfollows is no longer being presented as a topic but as the subjectof the predicate (see g #21-2). The switch from topic (wa) todefinite subject (ga) lays stress on the latter. For example: aiJhfW A 11 Asatte w anichiyobi desu ne. ChigaimasuAshitaga nichiyobidesu yo. The day after tomorrow is Sundayisn't it.You're wrongthere. Tomorrow js Sunday. 3.In theconstruction N+ wa N+ g waindicates a topic (efirst noun) about which anpect or quality (thesecond noun) is explained. Zo w ahana ga nagai desu. The elephantits nose is long. / Elephants have long noses. Takemoto-san w aseikaku ga yasashii desu. A sfor Takemotoher personality isgentle./ Takemoto has agentle nature. 6 4.Used to show contrast betweentwo items or ideasboth of which aresignifiedby w a. Kanji wamuzukashii desu ga Nihon-go no bunpo w aamari muzu-kashiku nai-ndesu.Kanjia difficultbut Japanese grammar is not verydifficult.'Hokkaido noyuw a samui desu gaTokyo w a atatakai desu.le Hokkaido winter is coldbut [e] Tokyo [winter] is warm. /It'scold in Hokkaido hthe winterbutwarm in Tokyo- ' 12W A RNote: Insome casesonly one item or idea is explicitly mentioned. Forexamplein the following sentencethe impJication is eperson might goto a cheaper restaurant.Takai karaano resutoran ni w a ikimasen.Because it's expensive1 won't go to at restaurant. I 1 a m notgoing to thatrestaurant because it's too expensive. Note: In itscontrastive functionwa comes after other particles ( wa dewa). Two important exceptions are when it replaces ga and 0as inthe next example. Bata 0kaimashita ka. Magarin w akaimashita gabataw akaim.asendeshita. Did you buy some butter? 1 bought somemargarinebut 1 didn't buy y butter.1 1 bought some margarinebut notany butter. 5.In the forms V-te wa iru (first example below) andV-masu base followed by wa and suru (second and thirdexamples)indicates emphasis. See also tewa (#47). ( ) Konpyuta0motte w a imasu mada tsuka (wa) imasen. 1 own a comput [1 do o wna computerlbut 1 haven't used it yet.Ano hito 0 shitte w aimasugaamari hanashita koto w a arimasen. 1 know h i mbut 1 haven'tspoken to h i mmuch. bG A 13 Ocha w anomimashita gajikan ga.nakatta no de shokuji w ashi-masen deshita. 1 had some teabut sincethere wasn't m u c htime1 didn't eat (have a meal). lG A I1.Indicatsubject o fe sentence o rwicertainverbs a n dadjectivesthe object. 1.Indicates existence; used with such verbsas arugozaimasuiruirassharu. Asoko ni watashi no borupen ga arimasuka. Is m y ball-point pen over ere?Asoko ni yubin'okuga arimasu. There's a post 0 ce over ere.50Watashi no kaisha ni waonna no hitoga goju-nin ijo imasu. There are more than y w o m e nmycompany.Note: Wa can replace ga in such sentences when (firstexample below) some-g is being contrasted (my ball-point pensayincontrast to m y pencil) or when (second example) information isbeing presented about a subject already identified. See wa (#1nos.14). 01;"14G AWatashi no borupen w a asoko ni arimasu ka. Is m yball-point pen over there? ( ) Yubin-kyoku wa doko ni arimasu ka.(Yubin-kyoku wa) ekino mae ni am u.W here is e post office?(Thepost 0 is) in froht of the station. 2.Indicates the subject ofthe predicate. Asoko ni sakura ga saite imu. The cherry trees areblooming overere.Ano yama 0mite kudasai . Mada yuki ga nokotteimasu yo. Lookat mountain. There's still snow on it. (Lit.... snowstill rem ns.)Note: W hen making a contrastwa (#1no. 4)n replacega: Asoko ni sakura w a saite imasu gaume w a saite imasen. lecherry trees are blooming over therebut the plum trees are not.G A15 E-tae --3.Indicates the subject of an intransitive verb. To gaakimashita. The door opened. lolli--! ' A m e ga futte iru. !t'sraining. Note: Wa (#1no. 4) can replace ga for contrastivepurposes: A m e w a futte iruyuki w a madaimasen.It's rainingbutit's notsnowingyet.4.Indicates the subject of the sentence when n ewas-yet -unknown information is being presented. KochiragaYamada-san desu. This is Mr. Yamada. (a personal introduction)Kintomodachi no Jakku ga anata ni aitai to itte imashita. Yesterdaym y iend Jack said at he wanted to meet you. Note: Here again wa(#1no. 4) can replace ga for contrastive purposes: Goshkaishimu.Kochira ga Yamada-san dekochira w aSuzuki-san desu. Let m e do theintroductions. This is Mr. Yamadaand is is Ms. Suzuki. .'....16GA.5.Used with interrogative words in questions. D n ohito gakachdesu ka. Which one [person) is the section chief? Dare gaichiban hayaku kimashita ka. W ho came [arrived) first? Note: W a(#1nos. 12) can replace ga ifa topic is being presented: Kacho w adono hito desu ka. The section chie-which one [person) is he? / Which one is esection chief? b) ln asking for a choice: Sushi totenpura dochira ga suki desu ka. W hich do you like bettersushi ortempura? Chugoku-go Nihon-go todochira ga muzukashii desu ka. Which is more difficultChinese dr Japanese? 6.lndicates the subjectof a relative c1ause. Senshu washiga mita eiga w atsumaranakatta.The movie 1 saw last week was boring. G A 17 14Isshukan de watashiga yomu hon wayonsatsu desu. 1 read four books a week [in oneweek]. (Lit.Four books is what 1 read in one week.) Note: No(#171-5) may replace ga in is usage. 7.lndicates the subject of ac1ause ending in ka. Naze kare ga sonna koto 0 yatta kawakarimasen.1 don't know w h y he did that [lit.something like that]. D oshitekanojo ga anna tsumaranai hon 0 yonde iru no kafushigi desu. lt isa mysteto m e[beyond me) w h yshe's reading such a boring book [aboring book like that). 8.lndicates the subject of a subordinate orconditional c1ause when it is dierent from the subject of the mainc1ause. . a) Subordinate c1auses. ( ) Haha ga Nihon ni kuru maeni[watashi waJ kono heya 0 kirei ni soji shinakereba naranai.Before m y mother comes to Japan1 have to make this room nice andc1ean. Hahaga kita kiwatashi wa gochiso 0tsukutta. W hen m y mothercame1 prepared quite a spread. 111HIli--hi'fies--ri1131111%JRth141i1Eli---j ::h;!11hil i1)Hild1 lti''ii'.h11h 19G AYamada-san W a Chugoku-go w awakarimu gaEigo wawakarimasen. Yan aunde ands Chinesebut not English. Haha ga kitaatowatashi wa kaimono ni dekaketa. A m y m oe r m e1 went outshopping. 10. Indicates the object ofverbs of sensation (mieru andkikoeru) as w l las suru in certain uses. b) Conditiona1cIauses.Ano hito ga iku-n dattarawatashi wa ikanai. Ifhe's going1 am not .Koko kara Fuji-san ga miemasu. M t. Fuji can be seen o mhere. I You can see M t. Fuji omhere.Asa no daidokoro w a kohi nokaori ga shimasu. The kitchen smells of coe in the morning. I Inthe morning you can smell coffee [brewing] in the kitchen.Jt14ifftT Anata ga so iu naranatto 0tabete mimasu. Ifyou say so[ifyou recommend itinsistetc.JI'll t some fer-mented beans. I Koko kara Fuji-san w amiemasu ganoboru hito no sugaw amJemasen.Younsee M t. Fio m herebut not the figures of the people climbingit.Note: Wa (#1no. 4)n replace ga for contrast: 11.Indicates theobject of verbs and adjectivesof necessity (hitsuyo d iru).Watashiwa okane ga iru. 1 need money.9.Indicates the object of VErbs ofabHity(ddim karu and the potential forms ofverbs). Abe-san gorufugadekimu. Abe can play [lit . doJ goIf. aOkada-san wa piano gahikemasu. Okada can play the piano. Yamada-san wa Chugoku-go gawakarimasu. Yamada understands Chinese. Note: Wa (#1no. 4)n replacega to create a contrast:20G A 8Kotsu no anzen no tamekibishiikisoku ga hitsuyo desu. Strict rules are needed for traffic safety.Note:"'(#1no. 4) replaces ga when a contrast is being made: Watashiwqokane w airu gamono w airanai.1 need moneybut 1 don't needthings. 12.Indicates the object ofadjectives ofdesire(1105hiiande-tai form ofverbs). Compare the use of 0(#18no. 5) with e -garuand -taiformsofverbs. Jikan okane ga hoshii. 1 want time and money.Tsumetai mono ga nomitai. 1 want something cold to drink. Note: Wa(#1no. 4)replaces ga when a contrast is being made: Tsumetai mono wanomitai gaatatakai mono w airimasen. I'd like to drink somethingcoldbut not anything hot.G A 21 13. Indicates the object ofverbsand adjectives of emotion (suki d kirai daureshii kanashiikoishinpai suruetc.). Compare the use ofo (#18no. 5) wiverbs in the-iand -garu form5. Watashi wa Motsuaruto ga daisuki desu.1 loveMozart. Jon-san wa natto ga kirai desu. John doesn't like fermentedsoybeans. Aki ni naru to taiga shinpai desu. In the falltyphoonsare a worry [a problem]. Hanako wa konna subarashii purezenokureta-n desu yo. Sono kimochi ga ureshii desu. Hanako gave m ethiswonderful present. I'm50 pleased by her thoughtfnlness. Note: Wa(#1no. 4) can besubstituted for ga to create a contrast:letJimu-sanwa nattw akirai da gasurume w adaisuki desu.Jimdoesn't likefermented soybeansbut he loves dried cuttlefi5h." . . . "'.'iG AA214. Indicates the object of adjectives of abty (jozu naheta na kuina kiyo na etc.). Atarashii shushwahaikugaiZU dasdesu. The n e wprime minister is said to be good at haiku. 2.Indicates at a givensubject has two different qualities: but aloughSakura no hana kireida gakaori ga nai. Cherry blossoms a prettybut they have nofragrance. - fU4zz:; gogt ak u kui Fura1 go m o/; t G o mOg. :awaisg' O o d a tlang ua ge s; shecansipea k b oth Prench andItalian. Kono eiga wa omoshiroi gl nagasugimasu ne. This movie isinterestingbut it's just too long. Note: Wa (#1no. 4) replaces gawhen a contrast is intended:3.Connects two clauses with.out anyadversative implication (cf. 11-1above): and." }Tani-san wa atamagaii Yoko-san m oii desu. Tani is intelligentand so is Yokota. IL Us e dbetween dauses( d sometimes at the e n dofsentences)usuallywith the m en gbut."1.usedbetweentwoclausestoindicatedlattheYEareopposedirlmeaning (cf . II3below): buta1out::'n;;tmhmi-n d 5ku na rimaLatelye d aare w a r mbut the nidlts have urned cold./It's warmduringthe daytime these daysbut cold atnight-oMtdshi noie Kura sdpdw u dikai-n de5149aeb-wu t6i-F1da---T h n u p m ket is cl to m yhousebut the train tion-hr-KinFuji-san 0hajimete mimashita gakireideshita. 1 s a w Mt. Fifor the first time yesterdayand it wasbeautifuI. 1iiilu141Jvin-HJrtt1kt-ttil--1111!il A U m M i s p u s Mhaiku w aj .iZU desiwamauThenewnrim so:0pruneml4.Indicates aprelimin yremark. Note: This type of sentence is 0 en terminatedafter ga at which point the interlocutorsensing what it is tofollowtakes up the thread of conversation. WatashiHirono tomoshimasu gagoshujin wa irasshaimasu ka. . M y name is Hirono. Isyour husband home? Senjitsu onegai shita koto desu gado narimashitadesho ka. About the request 1 made severa1 days agoh o whas itturned out [has there been any progress]? 24G A4....."'5.Used atthe end ofthe sentence. Note: T hese usages are essentially thesarne as those in 11-4aboveexcept the second clause isn't statedoutright. (Words in brackets show only one of various imaginablecontexts.) a) Implies an unstated meaning at isin contrast to theone stated: WellyesbutOssharu koto wa mottomo desu ga .W hat yousayis quite rightbut [it's di1t to imp1ement now]. b) Softens arefusal: lamsoybut ..." ..Bucho wa ima kaigi-chu de gozaimasu ga. ..The division chief is in a meeting n o w'" [so you'll have to waitto see him]. 6.W hen ed at the end of a sentence or dause andpreceded by ii indicates e speaker wants the event to come out asstated. Context determiries whether orno! the s hisactuallyreallzable: it would be nice if; 'it would have bn nice if." Rainengaikoku e k dekiru to iigadame no yo desu. It would be nice if 1cou1d make a trip abroad next yearbut itseems ough 1 cah't [seemsimpossible]. ..Hayaku haru ga kuru ii-n daga... It would be nice ifspring came soon. / 1 hope spring comes soon. G A 25 ..Kanojo gadokushin da iindaga 1 hope she issingle. / (Orknowing that sheisnot) 1 wish she were single. 7.Usedidiomaticallyaftercontrastiveverbsoradjectives: whether or not." a)After the -o forms of contrastive verbs or adjectives. Watashi watasukaro ga shinga kamaimasen. 1 don't care whether 1 live [lit . am saved] or die. Atsukard ga samukaro ga-watashi wa dilijobu desu.I'mall right [it doesQ't bother me] whether it's hot or cold. b) Ae -o and -mai forms of the same verb. Watashi ga iko ga ikumai gaanata ni wa kankei nai koto desu. W hether 1 go or not hasnathingto do with you [is not your cOs-cern]. UFOTanaka-san gashinjiyo ga shinjimai gaboku wa hakkiri yufdo mimashita. W hetherTanaka believes it or not1 dearly saw a UFO. 26M O8.Usedeexpression V + ga hayai ka: as soon asno sooner had." Mado 0 akeruga hayai kaneko ga kita.N o sooner had the windowbeen opened th thecat jumped in. I As soon as 1 opened the window the cat jumped in.Yoko ni naru ga hayai kasugu nemutte shimatta. N o sooner had 1lain down th 1fe11 asleep. I 1 f11 asleep as soon as m y head hitthe pillow. MOj Note: See also te mo (-de mo)#4and de mo#5.1.Indicates that two words arc:: equal in weight:alsotoo." Kore wasakura desu. Kore m o sakura desu. This is a cherry tree. This is acherry treetoo. Poru-san wa Nihon-go 0benkyo shite imasu.Nanshii-san m oNihon-go 0benkyo shite imu. Paul is studyingJapanese. Nancy isalso studying Japanese. M O 21 2.Showing similarnouns in parallel construction: andas w eUbo"Watashi no kaisha niwaAmerikajin m o Chugokujin m o ima'14. There are both A mericansand Chinese in m y company.Hanako-san wasushi m o tenpura m o sukidesu yo.Hanako likes both sushi and tempura. 3.Indicates anaddition:as well asin addition." Kore wa kuro desu gashiroi kutsu mo arimasu yo.These are blackbut w ehave white shoes as well. Nihonde wa kodomoJcede naku otona m o manga 0 yon-de im asu. In Japannotonly children read comic booksbut adults as w ell.4.Shows emphasisor absence of doubt concerning a question of timequantityetc.: anynumber of timesAno eiga wa nando m o mimashita. 1 have seen thatmovie any number of times. Kono resutoran waitsu m o kondeimasu.This restaurant is always crowded. 28M O5.Indicates totalnegation concerningquality or quantity (accompanied by a negativeverb): nOn oing."Nani m o arimasen g meshiagattekudasai. W e havenothing special to offerbut please help yourself. (Lit . There isnothirigbut please eat [a conventional phrase].) Ano heya ni wadarem o imasen yo. There is no one in that room. 6.T oemphasize theextent of a number: ofas much ( m y)as. 50Sumisu-san wakanji 0gosen m o shitte imasu. Mr. Smith knows all of five t


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